Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Third Edition - Telepractice and GFTA-3
Special recommendations for administering the
GFTA-3 via telepractice
Administering the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Third Edition (GFTA™-3) in a telepractice context can be accomplished utilising our Q-global® and Q-interactive™ software system. Details regarding the systems and how they are used are provided on the Q-global homepage and Q-interactive homepage.
Conducting a valid assessment in a telepractice modality requires an understanding of the interaction between a number of complex issues. In addition to the general information on our telepractice overview page noted above, professionals should address five themes (Eichstadt et al. 2013) when planning for administering GFTA-3 assessments via telepractice:
Professionals should address five themes (Eichstadt et al. 2013) when planning for administering GFTA™-3 assessments via telepractice. For more information on the five themes, please visit our Telepractice homepage.
Theme-specific information for forced-choice assessment administrations and the GFTA-3
1. Audio/visual environment
- Because of the nature of the task, full face and close-up mouth viewing are critical for an accurate scoring of each GFTA-3 test item.
- A headset with a microphone for the examiner and the examinee is highly recommended for every GFTA-3 assessment via telepractice. Make sure the microphone is not directly in front of the mouth, but at chin-level (for examiner and examinee)
- Test the audio either through the examinee's speakers or headset and ensure a high-quality audio presentation.
- Background noise should be eliminated and any digital noise due to telepractice transmission issues should be addressed and reduced as much as possible or eliminated.
2. Examiner factors
- Practice starting and completing a GFTA-3 assessment will be critical to convey clear articulation in the administration process.
- Make a clinical judgment, similar to a face-to-face session, whether or not you are able to gather the child's best performance. Report your clinical decision(s) in your report and comment on the factors that led to this decision and your reporting or lack of reporting of the scores.
3. Examinee factors
- There may be select administrations where an examinee headset is not appropriate or feasible. This may lead to an inability to complete the assessment, even descriptively, via telepractice, if you have a poor digital connection or can't clearly visualize the examinee's mouth.
4. Test/test materials
- Make sure you have only one (1) image of the stimulus pictures showing to the examinee at any time.
- Go to "full screen" with the stimulus pictures to eliminate distractions on the desktop/video window within the telepractice environment for the examinee.
Selected research to date
Studies supporting the equivalency of test scores when picture stimuli are displayed to the examinee in a printed manual versus a digital display on a computer screen (in-person administration):
Daniel, M. H. (2012a). Equivalence of Q-interactive administered cognitive tasks: WAIS–IV. Q- interactive Technical Report 1. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.
Daniel, M. H. (2012b). Equivalence of Q-interactive administered cognitive tasks: WISC–IV. Q- interactive Technical Report 2. Bloomington, MN: Pearson.
Studies addressing the use of GFTA-3 via telepractice:
Eichstadt, T. J., Castilleja, N., Jakubowitz, M., & Wallace, A. (2013, November). Standardized assessment via telepractice: qualitative review and survey data. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Chicago, IL.
Crutchley, S., Dudley, W., & Campbell, M. (2010). Articulation assessment through videoconferencing: A pilot study. Communications of Global Information Technology, 2, 12 23.
Waite, M., Cahill, L., Theodoros, D., Busuttin, S., & Russell, T. (2006). A pilot study of online assessment of childhood speech disorders. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 12(Suppl. 3), 92–94.
Note: Further research may be added over time.
There is not enough evidence at this time to fully support the reliable and valid administration of the GFTA-3 test via telepractice including the use of the normative data. Descriptive reporting may be warranted if the administration is attempted and documentation of the exact procedures must be fully described in the report. Further studies are underway to investigate item-level differences given the remote audio and visual environment. Therefore, you may use the GFTA-2 via telepractice with descriptive information documented about telepractice administration without additional permission from Pearson in the following published contexts:
- GFTA-3 Digital Stimulus book via flash drive
Any other use of the GFTA-3 via telepractice requires prior permission from Pearson. This includes, but is not limited to, scanning the paper stimulus books, digitizing the paper record forms, holding the materials physically up in the camera's viewing area, or uploading a manual on to a shared drive or site.