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Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) - Frequently Asked Questions

What is the VIP test designed to do?

What is a Performance Curve?

What are the response style categories on the VIP test?

What is a Suppression Sector?

When is it appropriate to use the VIP test?

What are the limitations of the VIP test?

What is the diagnostic efficiency of the VIP test?


What is the VIP test designed to do?

The VIP test is a validity indicator designed to be administered with tests that assess cognitive capacity. The individual's response style is classified into one of four categories: Compliant, Inconsistent, Irrelevant, or Suppressed. Results of the VIP test indicate whether the individual's performance on other tests of cognitive capacity should be considered a valid representation of his or her abilities.

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What is a Performance Curve?

A Performance Curve is a graphical representation of an individual's average performance (proportion correct) in relation to item difficulty. Each point on the graph represents the individual's performance on 10 items of comparable difficulty. The average proportion correct is expected to be 1.0 for the easiest test items. As difficulty increases, test performance should decline. Once the individual has reached his or her ceiling of ability, performance is not expected to differ significantly from chance (.5). The Performance Curve can be used to assess an individual's response style.

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What are the response style categories on the VIP test?

The author of the VIP Interpretive Report classifies an individual's response style, based on the shape of his or her Performance Curve, into one of four categories: Compliant, Inconsistent, Irrelevant and Suppressed.

 

Compliant Responding

The respondent intended to perform well and made a good effort throughout the test, and the performance is an accurate representation of his or her ability.
Inconsistent Responding The respondent intended to do well but his or her performance includes unexpected mistakes or poor performance.
Irrelevant Responding The respondent answered the items in a manner that cannot be differentiated from random responding; the items were answered without regard to item content.
Suppressed Responding The respondent made a deliberate effort to answer the items incorrectly; the respondent 'suppressed' correct answer choices.

 

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What is a Suppression Sector?

A Suppression Sector is an extended portion of the Performance Curve (20 or more consecutive running means for the Nonverbal subtest, 18 or more consecutive running means for the Verbal subtest) for which the running means are .3 or lower. Given that pure guessing or random responding will produce 50% correct answers on average, such extended segments of below-chance performance strongly suggest deliberate suppression of correct answers. The VIP classification rules assign a Suppressed classification to any performance that includes a Suppression Sector.

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When is it appropriate to use the VIP test?

The VIP test is appropriate in any situation in which a clinician is concerned with accurately measuring an individual's cognitive capacity. Just as validity indicators are commonly reviewed prior to the interpretation of many personality tests, the VIP test allows clinicians to routinely assess whether cognitive testing has been completed with the full effort of the test-taker.

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What are the limitations of the VIP test?

The VIP test is not intended to be used to assess the validity of cognitive testing with individuals who are known to have mental retardation. Use of the VIP test with individuals who are illiterate or who have significant mental retardation will generally result in their response style being categorised as "Invalid."

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What is the diagnostic efficiency of the VIP test?

The table below presents a summary of diagnostic efficiency statistics for the Verbal and Nonverbal subtests individually and in combination with each other. In this table, sensitivity refers to the proportion of individuals in the noncompliant group who were found to demonstrate evidence of motivation to perform poorly, insufficient effort, or both. Specificity refers to the proportion of individuals in the compliant group who demonstrated no evidence of insufficient effort or motivation to perform poorly. The sensitivity of the Nonverbal subtest was 66%, and the specificity was 90%. Overall, the VIP Nonverbal subtest correctly classified 79% of the sample. The sensitivity and specificity for the Verbal subtest were 59% and 94%, respectively; the overall correct-classification rate was 77%.

 

  Sensitivity % Specificity % Overall Classification Rate %
VIP Nonverbal Subtest
66
90
79
VIP Verbal Subtest
59
94
77

 

The next table provides the diagnostic efficiency statistics, computed on the cross-validation sample, for the VIP subtests and for the PDRT (Portland Digit Recognition Test), RMT (Rey Memory Test), WRT (Word Recognition Test), and DCT (Dot Counting Test). In this table, sensitivity refers to the proportion of individuals in the noncompliant group who were classified as "did not intend to respond correctly" (classification was Irrelevant or Suppressed), and specificity refers to the proportion of individuals in the compliant groups who demonstrated an intention to respond correctly (classification was Compliant or Inconsistent).

The VIP test has moderately elevated sensitivity, but the sensitivity of the other tests is quite low. Specificity for all these tests is uniformly quite high.

 

  Sensitivity % Specificity % Overall Classification Rate %
VIP Nonverbal Subtest
50.3
98.1
75.0
VIP Verbal Subtest
42.6
98.1
71.2
PDRT
15.8
99.4
67.7
RMT
5.0
97.5
61.4
WRT
8.9
100.0
64.6
DCT
11.9
97.5
64.1

 

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Key Information

Description

A tool to help support forensic or neuropsychological evaluations

Author(s)

Richard I Frederick

Publication Year

2003

Age Range

18 years to 69 years

Administration

Verbal subtest: 20 minutes (78 items), Nonverbal subtest: 30 minutes (100 items)

Qualification Code

CL1


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